In the phrase “Hunter Gatherers” estrogen characterizes the female
Gatherers. Testosterone was carried by the hunters. Men hunters, woman gatherers.
When women came down from the trees to forage and gather foods from the fields they were often attacked, and had to remain continuously vigilant. The tribal males were most likely out hunting and not at home resolving security issues.
Animals wanted to eat these women, scare them off food supplies and when possible force sex upon them. This sex act was one of rape. Many animals using the grasslands may have tried to have sex with each other, but genetic off spring were not possible. In my imagination it would have been a raping situation because of the species differences. In modern Humans rape is still an important inbred issue, an angst we carry with us.
I believe that modern human females have carried forward a heightened intuitive awareness of when they are being watched, stalked or in danger. Modern females still maintain a strong angst over choosing the proper male. The chimpanzee females would go back into the trees to have their babies. These off- spring would carry the unchanged Y Chromosomes of the male Pongids and the x chromosomes of the female chimpanzee. This helped disperse human characteristics more quickly within the chimpanzee community.
In reverse, the male chimpanzee copulating with the female Pongids would have spread their mitochondrial DNA more quickly among the Pongids. The bonobo chimps are known for their particularly licentious sexual behavior, as well as their exceptional intelligence.
Pongidae, or the Pongids, is an obsolete primate taxon containing the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans. They are sometimes called “great apes”. Pongidae is now known to be paraphyletic. PONGIDS gave rise to Hominid around seven million years ago. The corresponding crown group for this taxon is Hominidae. Pongidae has six extant member species. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studies, modern humans may have bred with “at least two groups” of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Other studies have cast doubt on admixture being the source of the shared genetic markers between archaic and modern humans, pointing to an ancestral origin of the traits originating 500,000 to 800,000 years ago.
In the classification of living things, Pongidae is the family of animals that are our closest relatives in the animal kingdom. The members of that family, which are called Pongids, are the gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), the common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the bonobos (Pan paniscus), and the orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). An often-used illustration of how closely related we are is the fact that our DNA is so similar (there is only a 2.5% difference in the nucleotide sequence in the DNA of humans and chimps, compared to a 15.8% difference between humans and the new world monkeys, for example).
The pongids are sometimes referred to as the ‘great apes’ (more because of their size than their accomplishments). The pongids do not have tails, and they are both larger and more intelligent than the gibbons and siamangs (family Hylobatidae) and the monkeys. They generally have complex social habits, although the orangutans tend to be rather solitary, territorial creatures who hang about in the trees a lot.
The chimps and gorillas spend most of their time on the ground. They move around mostly on their legs, but touching their hands to the ground to keep balance. (They are sometimes called ‘knuckle-walkers’ for that reason.) Their skeletons are not well-designed for full-time upright walking. We modern humans have dropped the tail, The scar is still there. We all have one. Check it out.
The bonobo chimps are known for their particularly licentious sexual behavior, as well as their exceptional intelligence.
And that’s how we began.
Since the earliest hominid species diverged from the ancestor we share with modern African apes, 5 to 8 million years ago, there have been at least a dozen different species of these human like creatures. Many of these hominid species are close relatives, but not human ancestors. Most went extinct without giving rise to other species. Some of the extinct hominids known today, however, are almost certainly direct ancestors of Homo sapiens. While the total number of species that existed and the relationships among them is still unknown, the picture becomes clearer as new fossils are found. Humans evolved through the same biological processes that govern the evolution of all life on Earth.
Non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, and perhaps until as recent as 10,000 years ago. Which of these, if any, are included under the term “archaic human” is a matter of definition. Anatomically modern humans appear from about 200,000 years ago and after 70,000 years ago gradually supplanting the “archaic” human varieties.